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Last Updated: Sep 24, 2015

The Polish housing market is gaining momentum, with record-low interest rates, constrained supply, and new housing programs stimulating demand.

The average price of existing flats in Poland’s 7 big cities (Warsaw, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Kraków, Łódź, Poznań, and Wrocław) rose by 3% (4.3% inflation-adjusted) during the year to Q1 2015, according to the Polish central bank, Narodowy Bank Polski (NBP). During the latest quarter, house prices were up by 0.7% (1.2% inflation-adjusted).
  • Gdańsk saw the highest average transaction price increase at 13.1% y-o-y to PLN 5,417 (€1,289) per sq. m. in Q1 2015. It was followed by Krakow with an 8.1% y-o-y increase to PLN 6,197 (€1,474) per square metre (sq. m.).
  • In Warsaw, the country’s capital, the average transaction price of existing houses fell by 1.6% y-o-y in Q1 2015 to PLN 7,054 (€ 1,678) per sq. m.
  • Łódź and Poznań had price declines of 3.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The average transaction price in Łódź was at PLN 3,342 (€ 795) per sq. m., while PLN 4,905 (€1,167) per sq. m. in Poznań.

Until very recently house prices in Poland had been falling since mid-2008.

Compared to pre-crisis peaks:
  • In Gdańsk, house prices are down 13.6%
  • In Krakow, house prices are down 15.2%
  • In Łódź, house prices are down 19.7%
  • In Warsaw, house prices are down 22.8%
  • In Poznań, house prices are down 22.8%

These post-2008 declines came after a long boom period from 2004 to 2007, fuelled by an inflow of investment due to the country’s accession to the EU, record low interest rates, and mortgage financing development.

Poland house pricesProperty prices suddenly surged in Warsaw - up 23% in 2005, up 28% in 2006, an amazing 45% in 2007, and 13% in 2008, according to REAS.  Other cities such as Wroclaw saw even larger house price rises. Behind this boom lay strong economic growth.

However during the 2008-09 crisis the Polish Zloty fell dramatically, and mortgages - mainly denominated in foreign currencies - became unrepayable.  Home prices fell for 6 straight years.

Analysis of Poland Residential Property Market »

Last Updated: Apr 22, 2016

House prices in Poland have been rising gently since Q4 2013. For reasons which are not entirely clear to us, this year we found somewhat lower gross rental yields than last year, in the Polish cities we cover.

The Warsaw distict of Mokotow, located just below Srodmiescie, houses many foreign embassies and companies. It ranks second in terms of property prices, after Srodmiescie. Prices for apartments here range from €1,800 to €2,050 per sq. m,.

In Mokotow 120 sq. m. apartments have rental yields averaging 6.45%. For a 120 sq. m. apartment you will pay €244,000 and earn maybe €1,300 per month.

Apartments in Srodmiescie, which includes the historic neighborhoods of the Old Town (Stare Miasto) and the New Town (Nowe Miasto), are now similarly priced.

Yet they are really not expensive, compared to the prime districts of other European cities. Srodmiescie apartment prices are at about from €2,150 per square metre (sq.m.), with gross rental yields ranging from 5.5% to 5.8%.

In the other popular Warsaw areas Ursynów, Wilanów, and Żoliborz, apartments cost around €1,750. Property owners earn good rental returns here of around 6.4%.

In Krakow, average apartment prices range from €1,750 to €2,600 per sq. m. Apartment gross yields here range from 4.7% to 6.7%.

The big downside is that round trip transaction costs are high in Poland.  See our  Poland transaction costs analysis and our Transaction costs in Poland compared to other countries.

Read Rental Yields  »

Last Updated: May 24, 2016

Rental Income: Net rental income is taxed at progressive rates, up to 32%.

Capital Gains: Capital gains incurred on properties sold within five years of acquisition are taxed at a flat rate of 19%. Capital gains incurred on properties sold after a 5-year holding period are exempted from capital gains tax.

Inheritance: Gifts and inheritances of Polish property are taxed at progressive

Residents: Residents of Poland pay taxes on their worldwide income at progressive rates, up to 32%.

Read Taxes and Costs  »

Last Updated: May 24, 2016

Roundtrip transaction costs, i.e., the cost of buying and selling a property, are around 5.35% to 31.2%, with all costs falling on the buyer. For residential apartments, real estate agent’s fee is typically 3%.

Read Buying Guide  »

Last Updated: Jun 30, 2006

Rent: Rents can be freely negotiated between landlord and tenant. Rent indexation clauses are legal.

Tenant Security: However, the general situation over rental laws is worryingly unstable. Strict re-regulation of the rental sector was recently legislated by Parliament. Fortunately, it was declared unconstitutional shortly after coming into law. Populist pro-tenant feeling is strong.

Read Landlord and Tenant  »

Last Updated: Sep 24, 2015

Positive growth outlook in 2015, low deficit, and a new president

Poland’s economy slowed in the second quarter of 2015, growing by 3.3% y-o-y, according to Central Statistical Office of Poland (GUS), slightly lower than the 3.6% y-o-y growth in the previous quarter. The deceleration was due to slow growth in private consumption (up by 3% y-o-y), government spending (2.4% y-o-y increase), and fixed investment (6.4% growth).

In 2015, the IMF expects 3.5% economic growth, mainly due to the decline of oil prices, and the European Commission expects 3.2% GDP growth - good numbers.

Earlier this year, Standard & Poor’s raised its outlook on Poland’s A- credit rating from stable to positive, implying a possible upgrade. "The outlook revision reflects our expectation that income levels ... will rise consistently on the back of broad-based and balanced economic growth, thereby improving the economy's resilience and capacity to bear debt," said S&P.

The government’s budget deficit is now at its lowest since 2007 at 3.2% of GDP in 2014, according to Central Statistical Office of Poland (GUS). The country’s low debt was attributed to “the effect of good market conditions”, according to ING Bank Śląski’s chief economist, Rafał Benecki.

In June 2015, unemployment fell to 10.3%, from 12% the previous year. Core inflation fell to 0.6% during the year to August 2015, according to the central bank.

Bronisław Komorowski’s reign as Poland’s president has ended. Law and Justice Party (PiS) candidate Andrzej Duda won the recent elections held in May 2015. Duda, a conservative, won 51.55% of the vote, as opposed to Komorowski's 48.45%. The new president, who assumed his office in August 2015, vowed to reverse the increase in the retirement age and draft laws that could increase the tax breaks of the impoverished.

  • Low transaction costs
  • Strong post-transition economy
  • Low to moderate rental yields
  • High rental income tax
  • Strong pro-tenant sentiments
Price (sq.m): €2,159 For a 120 sq. m. property, usually an apartment.
Rental Yield: 5.46% For a 120 sq. m. property, usually an apartment.
Rent/month: €1,178 For a 120 sq. m. property.
Income Tax: 13.50% Assumptions: Owners are a non-resident couple drawing US$ / €1,500 per month in rent, with no other local income.
Roundtrip Cost: 18.23% The total cost of buying and then reselling an apartment. Includes:

* all transaction taxes and charges:
* lawyers' and notaries' fees
* agents' fees

Assumptions: The buyers are non-resident foreigners. The apartment cost US$250,00 / €250,000.
Cap Gains Tax: n.a. Assumptions: The property was bought for US$250,000 / €250,000, and sold 10 years later, after a 100% appreciation.
Landlord and Tenant Law: Neutral Rating is based on a detailed study of each country’s law and practice.

Residential Market in Poland Q4 2015 - REASBaltics Real Estate Market Overview 2016 - Colliers InternationalPoland Residential Market Q1 2016 REAS

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