Contrary to the predictions of abrupt bubble bursts, Brazil’s housing market remains strong, with stable house price increases. Brazil’s composite FIPEZAP house price index rose by 12.7% (6.5% inflation-adjusted) during 2013 from a year earlier. In the fourth quarter of 2013, house prices increased by 3.5% (1.4% inflation-adjusted) from the previous quarter.
All the other major Brazilian cities also saw robust house price increases during 2013. Curitiba recorded the highest annual rise of 37.3% (29.7% inflation-adjusted), followed by Florianópolis (17.9%), and Vitória (16.9%). Double-digit house price rises also occured in Fortaleza, with house prices rising by 14.1% during 2013, Porto Alegre (14%), Recife (13.4%), Vila Velha (12.2%), Santo André (11.6%), São Caetano do Sul (11.5%), Salvador (10.7%), and Niteroi (10.1%). Modest house price rises were seen in Belo Horizonte (9.7%), São Bernardo do Campo (9.5%) and DF (4.2%).
From January 2008 to December 2012, average house prices in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro rose by 159% (98% inflation-adjusted), and by 194% (124% inflation-adjusted), respectively. The mortgage market also grew from just 1.5% of GDP in 2007 to about 6.2% of GDP in 2012.
Brazil’s housing boom has mainly been propelled by a continuous decline in interest rates in recent years. From a high of 26% in 2003, the Banco Central do Brasil’s Selic rate fell to 7.25% in 2012. Mortgage interest rates followed the Selic rate down.
However in the first half 2013, the central bank raised the benchmark interest rate seven times to 10.5% in January 2014, from 7.25% in April 2013, to rein in inflation.
“The surge in home prices [in Brazil] was mainly driven by massive credit expansion, which followed the sustained decrease of historically high interest rates, the increased availability of cheap savings deposits that partly have to be used to fund mortgages, and legal reforms that streamlined the foreclosure process,” according to Fitch Ratings.
Brazil's weakening economy and the central bank’s policy are negatively affecting the housing market.
However, many foreign investors remain optimistic, as Rio de Janeiro will host the FIFA World Cup final match this June 2014 and the Olympics in 2016, which are now seen to have positive impact on house prices, especially in that city.
In addition, President Dilma Rousseff has been pouring money into the housing market, using federal subsidies and state bank loans. Rouseff has nearly doubled spending on the country’s plan to build two million affordable homes by end-2014.
Brazil’s housing market is therefore expected to remain strong this year. Indeed Brazilian house prices, along with South African house prices, are forecast to see higher price-gains than any other countries' housing markets by end-2014, according to one research house, Fitch Ratings’ Global Housing and Mortgage Outlook.
Brazil’s economy expanded by 2.3% in 2013, from real GDP growth rates of 0.87% in 2012, 2.7% in 2011 and 7.5% in 2010, according to the central bank. The Brazilian economy is expected to grow by just 1.95% this year, as the central bank signals it will continue to raise the Selic rate to curb inflation.
For over the year now, a US-like credit bubble has been feared to exist in Brazil. The country’s economic growth is slowing, and the wider global environment is not encouraging, with Europe’s sovereign debt crisis worsening, and Asia slowing.
Capital Economics argues that the situation is now critical:
Brazil’s consumer credit explosion resulted from a 10-year economic boom and increased domestic consumption, especially among the poorer classes. Mortgage credit, in particular, has been pushed by banks to homebuyers, especially to low and mid-income first-time homebuyers who are very sensitive to interest rate movements. Despite being at a historic low of 8%, Brazil’s key interest rate remains high, and a rise in rates could make first-time buyers struggle to finance their mortgages.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) however points to risk-mitigating factors:
Brazil’s president Dilma Rousseff has been pushing Brazil further on the road to development charted by Lula da Silva’s, lifting many Brazillians from poverty unto the middle class. The successful poverty reduction program has led to real average incomes rising by 9% from 2002 to 2012, according to the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE).
“What I want my legacy to be is this country to be increasing middle class, to be highly competitive and highly educated,” Rousseff told Forbes.
In 2011, 54% of Brazilians were middle class, up from 34% in 2004, according to Cetelem BGN and Ipsos Research Institute –a total of 103 million middle class Brazilians, who account for 46% of the country’s purchasing power. Rousseff predicts that around 60% of Brazilians will be middle class by 2018.
The expansion of Brazilian middle class has made it real estate’s target market, replacing wealthy international buyers who used to dominate the market in major cities like São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Developers like Cyrela (a develop with a 10% market share in São Paulo and 25% share in Rio de Janeiro) have shifted from luxury projects, to the “economic” and “middle” segments, i.e., to middle-class buyers.
Out of the 27,690 units launched by Cyrela in 2011, 7,155 units (26%) were for the super-economic segment, 9,690 units (35%) for the economic segment, and 1,500 units (5%) for the middle segment.
In contrast 2,227 units (8%) were for the mid-high segment and 7,388 units (26%) for the high-end segment. In 2006, mid-high (48%) and luxury (5%) segments made up more than half of Cyrela’s launches.
Lula’s pro-market reforms have greatly helped expand Brazil’s mortgage market. The first big break was the government’s approval of fiduciary alienation, whereby the buyer becomes the owner of the property only after it has been fully paid. The bank or lending institution holds ownership of property, while the loan is being repaid.
This gives banks security, if buyers default. In the past, banks were reluctant to lend to households, because Brazilian courts were biased in favour of borrowers.
Brazil’s new Housing Finance System (SFH), offers households an opportunity to turn their higher incomes into mortgage payments. SFH had experienced over the past few years, an increase in housing finance volumes, which wasn’t attained during regarded SFH’s best years in early 1980’s.
According to a Warnock & Warnock (2008) study, out of a stock of 54 million housing units, around 9.5 million of them were financed under the SFH, while most were produced by homeowners themselves. Although a small number, the amount of financed units were already high considering the country’s small mortgage market.
The SFH’s resources are administered by Caixa Economica Federal (CEF). Medium and high-income families use the Cadernetas de Poupança (CP) or private savings accounts. The Fundo Garantia por Tempo de Servico (FGTS), which are employees’ monthly private accounts, is used for low-income housing.
In June 2012, the CEF announced the expansion of 30 to 35 years maximum terms of home financing. Interest rates were also reduced from 9% to 8.85% for properties funded by the SFH. Depending on the level of relationship with Caixa, the rate could reach 7.8%. Those out of SFH, the rates were reduced from 10% to 9.9%, or may even reach 8.9%.
Brazil’s mortgage market remains small at 3.8% of GDP in 2011, up from 1.4% in 2005. On the other hand, financial system credit for housing increased by five times from BRL 29 billion (US$ 14.1 billion) in 2005 to BRL 200 billion (US$ 97.7 billion) in 2011.
In June 2012, financial system credit for housing expanded by 40.6% to BRL 235 billion (US$ 114.8 billion) from the same period last year.
Brazil’s benchmark rate was once one of the world’s highest. But successful economic reforms over the past several years have pushed Selic, Brazil’s central bank benchmark rate, from nearly 30% in 1998 to 8.65% in August 2009.
The government raised the rate several times to curb inflation from March 2010 to August 2011, reaching 12.42%. Unexpectedly, the central bank cut its key interest rate in September 2011 due to slowing global and domestic economic growth and has continued to do so, reaching an all-time low of 8.07% in July 2012. The benchmark rate is likely to decline further to 7.25% by end of 2012.
Brazil’s continuously rising property prices has been pushing down rental yields.
In Rio de Janeiro, where strongest price movement were witnessed, rental yields for apartments ranged from 4.03% to 5.36% in November 2011, according to the Global Property Guide, down from average yields of 7.8% in 2009.
Rental yields in São Paulo ranged from 4.22% to 7.81%, with higher yields for smaller apartments, down from average yields of 8.33% in 2009.
Penthouses in São Paulo can have yields ranging from 6.7% to 8.75%.
Brazil still has Latin America’s highest level of inequality, very visible in the favelas on the hilly outskirts of Rio de Janeiro and other cities. The underlying problem of housing scarcity remains, as is evident in the 8 million “housing deficit” in 2011, a climb from 6.4 million units in 2005. Of this, 90% belongs to the poorest income bracket.
Brazilians, especially the poor, find housing unaffordable because of the high property prices. In São Paulo, around 62% of families find it expensive to own a house, based on a study by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB).
Home ownership is at 75%, with only about 14% of the 42 million housing stock rented. But around 85% of all homeowners live in low quality, self-built, single-room housing units.
São Paulo’s metropolitan area has an estimated population of 19.8 million, based on the IBGE’s August 2011 estimate. Brazil’s 15 most populous metropolitan areas account for 37.35% of the total population.
Favelas were named after the squatter settlements on the hill Morro da Favela, near the centre of Rio. It is estimated that about one-third of Rio’s population lives in favelas. The situation is the same in other major cities, such as Brasilia and São Paulo; perhaps 40% of these cities´ population lives in these squatter settlements.
The housing program Minha Casa Minha Vida (My House, My Life), launched in March 2009, was one of the popular federal government programs launched during former President Lula da Silva’s 8-year term.
With an initially allocated budget of BRL 36 billion (US$ 17.55 billion), the program aimed to build 1 million houses during 2009 and 2010 for low income families, specifically those earning up to three times the national minimum salary. By end of 2010, 1,005,028 units had been contracted, according to CEF.
The second stage of the program was officially launched in June 2011. It has a government budget allocation of BRL 72 billion (US$ 35.10 billion), and targets the construction of an additional 2 million houses by end-2014. By August 2012, one million houses had been built. President Rousseff announced that by 2014, her administration would have contracted 2.4 million houses, added to the one million houses contracted under the previous administration.
Some changes were introduced in the latter stage such as the increase of price ceiling for units, end of height restrictions on apartment blocks and installation of solar panels.
Of the total three million houses:
Under the program, subsidized mortgage loans were extended to middle and lower income homebuyers through the state-owned bank, Caixa Economica Federal (CEF).
Northeast Brazil, the poorest region in Brazil, is now catching up with the prosperous Southern Brazil. Though the Northeast region remains the poorest, with 27.8% of the country’s total population but accounting for just 13.5% of GDP in 2011, the region has been the country’s star economic performer over the past decade.
From 2000 to 2010, Northeast’s real GDP growth rose by an annual average of 4.2%, higher than the 3.6% annual growth for the rest of the country.
The Northeast has become a popular holiday destination for wealthy Brazilians in recent years, thanks to its fine beaches.
Now the area – particularly the cities of Natal, Recife and Fortaleza – benefits largely from the residential property boom and improved tourism infrastructure. Smaller towns with higher housing deficits are part of the Minha Casa, Minha Vida programme. Demand for rental accommodations has risen particularly in more desirable areas.
Second-home buyers from the southern and central regions have also turned their attention to Northeast Brazil. Coastline properties in Northeast Brazil are still a lot cheaper than those near São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro.
“Right now, the northeast is one big building site,” says Federal Integration Minister Fernando Bezerra Coelho. The port and industrial complex of Suape is being expanded. A petrochemical plant and a huge car factory are under construction. The government is expanding the Atlantic coastal highway. Over a hundred firms have moved in. The 2014 World Cup stadium is being constructed in Natal.
Granted that there is a marketing hype over the northeast, there are still risks involved in investing there. According to Exame Magazine, there were visible declines observed on overseas investment in Natal over the recent years, due to lack of capital availability from Europe (which makes up most of foreign demand for the secondary market in the Northeast).
Long term industrial sustainability is also questionable, since most states in the Northeast rely heavily on tourism, fisheries and agriculture.
According to Ruban Selvanayagam, housing developer and investment advisor for the Fez Tá Pronto Construction System, the Northeast’s main problem, as well as Brazil’s, is inflation in the price of land, labour, and construction materials. Selvanayagam also points out that salaries in the region are mostly lower than average class D and E earnings of BRL 792 (US$ 386), the prime market of the Minha Casa, Minha Vida program.
Brazil’s economy grew by an average of 4.3% from 2004 to 2006 and then by an average of 5.6% during 2007 and 2008. Brazil wasn’t spared in 2009, but the economic contraction was minimized at 0.3%. Real GDP growth rates were 7.5% in 2010 and 2.7% in 2011, despite the adverse impact of the eurozone debt crisis. All this took place in the context of great progress towards social equality.
However, the economy is now weakening. Brazil’s economy was estimated to have expanded by 2.3% in 2013, down from the initial estimate of 2.5%, according to the Banco Central do Brasil (BCB). The Brazilian economy is expected to grow by just 1.95% this year, as the central bank continues raising the Selic rate to curb inflation.
In an effort to boost the economy, President Dilma Rousseff introduced a tax relief programme, subsidies and protection for industry, increased social welfare benefits for low-income earners and unveiled enormous infrastructure programmes.
The country’s overall inflation rate was 5.8% in 2013, above the 4.5% mid-point of the BCB’s target range for the fourth straight year, according to the BCB. In 2012, the country’s overall inflation rate was 5.84%, from 6.5% in 2011, 5.91% in 2010 and 4.31% in 2009.
The central bank expects the inflation rate to ease slightly to 5.6% this year.
In an effort to curb inflationary pressures, the BCB changed its monetary course of action in the first half 2013, raising the benchmark interest rate seven times from 7.25% in April 2013 to 10.5% in January 2014.
In December 2013, Brazil’s unemployment rate fell to 4.3%, down from 4.6% in the previous month and the lowest jobless rate since IBGE started collecting data in 2002, according to the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE).
In June 2013 riots exploded, precipitated by a R$0.20 (US$0.10) raise in public transport fares, and complaints about excessive spending on mega-sporting events. But the real causes go deeper. Brazil’s infrastructure is in terrible shape – education is poor, public transport is terrible, state provision of ports, airports, and health is of very poor quality. Many Brazilians spend up to four hours per day in traffic jams, either in their cars or on crowded public transport.
Brazil is not a poor country and the tax rates are extremely high. So the protests are better seen as an outburst of popular frustration at corruption – a protest against an intolerable situation familiar to many citizens in many other developing countries
“Brazilians see no reason to have such bad infrastructure when there is so much wealth that is so highly taxed,” noted a CNN report. “Aside from the problem of infrastructure, several corruption scandals which remain without trial, with the cases tending to end with the acquittal of the defendants.
“The biggest corruption scandal in Brazilian history finally ended with the conviction of the defendants and now the government is trying to reverse the trial by using maneuvers through unbelievable constitutional amendments: one, the PEC 37, which will annihilate the investigative powers of the prosecutors of the public ministry (the Brazilian equivalent of the District Attorneys), delegating the responsibility of investigation entirely to the Federal Police. Moreover, another proposal seeks to subject decisions of the Brazilian Supreme Court to the Congress - a complete violation of the three powers.”
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