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Although the Tutsi form only a minority of the population, they have dominated politics and the economy. The recent civil war, triggered by a Hutu rebellion, caused thousands of deaths and displacements. Since then the opposing parties have signed cease-fire and peace agreements, though one rebel group still refuses to reconcile. The new government, led by President Pierre Nkurunziza, faces many challenges, particularly from the country's last rebel group who remains outside the peace process and continue attacks in the western provinces.
Economic uncertainties and security concerns continue to discourage foreign investors. Private properties are always at risk of being expropriated by the government.